Newly a conference steamed from the headquarters of Neuralink in Fremont California, where scientists gave an update about the progress at Elon musk backed company for making of a neuralink brain machine prototype. In 2016 the company Neuralink was founded to create the Next-generation brain machines. This conference was surprising, but it provided the assurance the pandemic hasn’t prevented Neuralink from inching toward the goals. In this conference, the main focus was that Neuralink demonstrates its Next-generation Brain-machine prototype.
This brain-machine prototype can extract real-time information from many neurons at once. Elon musk reiterated during the conference. In the live demo, readings from a pig’s brain were shown onscreen. When the pig touches anything with the help of its snout, neural technology (which had been inserted in the pig’s brain two months prior) captures the neurons, and side by side neural technology gives a visualization reading on the computer. Neuralink uniquely leverages flexible cello phone looking wires inserted into the tissue of the brain skull using the sewing “machine” a surgical robot. Elon musk says that Neuralink is working with our food and drug administration on a future clinical trial for the people with paraplegia.
The partners of Neuralink Tim Hanson and Philip Sabes, who both studied form the University of California, San Francisco, pioneered the technology with the University of California, Berkeley professor Michel Maharbiz. Elon Musk calls the version demonstrated today “V2,”. He is so much confident that he will be someday able to insert this machine in under an hour without using general anesthesia. He also says it will be easy to remove and leave no lasting damage.
V2(sewing machine) to insert Neuralink brain machine:-
Neuralink developed this sewing machine to insert the brain-machine prototype inside the brain with the help of Woke Studios. A creative design consultancy based in San Francisco, on the design of the sewing machine. Woke began working with Neuralink over a year ago on a behind-the-ear concept that Neuralink presented in 2019, and the two companies re-engaged immediately after the surgical robot.
This V2 machine consists of three main parts. The patient situates their skull against the “head,” which houses automated surgical tools and brain-scanning cameras and sensors. A device firstly removes a portion of the skull from the head of the patient, which is put back into place post-op. Then computer vision algorithms guide a needle containing five-micron-thick bundles of wires and going deep inside six millimeters into the brain, avoiding the touch to any blood vessels. The wires which measure a quarter of the diameter of a human hair (4 to 6 μm), link to a series of electrodes at different locations and depths. This V2 can insert 192 electrodes per minute with the help of a sewing machine.
Link 0.9 the Neuralink brain machine prototype Interface:-
As Neuralink detailed last year, its first in-brain interface designed for trials. The N1, alternatively referred to as the “Link 0.9” contains an ASIC a thin film, and a hermetic substrate that can interface with upwards of 1,024 electrodes. Up to 10 N1/Link interfaces can be placed in a single brain hemisphere, optimally at least four in the brain’s motor areas and one in a somatic sensory area.
Elon Musk says the interface is dramatically simplified compared with the concept shown in 2019. It no longer has to sit behind the ear, it’s now the size of a large coin, and all the wiring the electrodes need connects within a centimeter of the device itself.
During the demo, the pig with the implant into the pig whose mane was playfully nuzzled her handlers in a pen adjacent to pens containing two other pigs, one of which had the chip installed and later removed.
Pigs have a Dura membrane and skull structure that’s similar to that of humans, Musk explained, and they can be trained to walk on treadmills and perform other activities useful in experiments. This is why Neuralink chose them as the third animals to receive their implants, after mice and monkeys.
Electrodes used to detect neural pulses:-
The electrodes relay detected neural pulses to a processor that is able to read information from up to 1,536 channels, roughly 15 times better than current systems embedded in humans. It meets the baseline for scientific research and medical applications and is potentially superior to Belgian rival Imec’s Neuropixels technology, which can gather data from thousands of separate brain cells at once. Musk says Neuralink’s commercial system could include as many as 3,072 electrodes per array across 96 threads.
The interface contains inertial measurement sensors, pressure and temperature sensors, and a battery that lasts “all day” and inductively charges, along with analog pixels that amplify and filter neural signals before they’re converted into digital bits. (Neuralink asserts the analog pixels are at least 5 times smaller than the known state of the art.) One analog pixel can capture the entire neural signals of 20,000 samples per second with 10 bits of resolution, resulting in 200Mbps of neural data for each of the 1,024 channels recorded. Once the signals are amplified, they’re converted and digitized by on-chip analog-to-digital converters that directly characterize the shape of neuron pulses. According to Neuralink, it takes the N1/Link only 900 nanoseconds to compute incoming neural data.
One of the Next-generation Neuralink’s goals is to allow tetraplegia to type at 40 words per minute. Eventually, Musk hopes the Neuralinks brain-machine system will be used to create what he describes as a “digital super-intelligent [cognitive] layer” that enables humans to “merge” with artificially intelligent software. Millions of neurons could be influenced or written to a single n1 link sensor.
brain-machine Future ahead for Next-generation:-
These hurdles haven’t discouraged Neuralink, which has over 90 employees and has received $158 million in funding, including at least $100 million from Elon Musk.
Talking on the story via a New York Post inquiry, a Neuralink spokesperson said many news channel findings were “either partially or completely false.”
While Neuralink expects that inserting the electrodes will initially require drilling holes through the skull. It hopes to soon use a laser to pierce bone with a series of small holes, which might lay the groundwork for research into alleviating conditions like Parkinson’s and epilepsy and help physically disabled patients hear, speak, move, and see.
“I as an author of the Next-generation platform and a researcher think at launch. This technology ( the neuralink brain-machine Prototype) is probably going to be quite a bit expensive and will be far-reaching for the poor’s. But the price will very rapidly drop”.
Elon Musk said. “Inclusive of surgery … we want to get the price down to a few thousand dollars, something like that. It should be possible to get it similar to eye surgery”.